カテゴリ:歷史之輪( 158 )

太久沒寫了

最近在台灣八旗文化總編輯富察先生的FB上的交流﹐記錄一下。
他接受電台訪問﹐談到滿清為什麼失敗?提出一觀點:漢化的滿清皇帝,失去了早期處理政治和社會事務的務實彈性,失去了面臨新挑戰時調整自我的精神。

我的想法﹕有時我會把一封建皇朝和一家族大企業作對比﹐經過長時間的開枝散葉﹐就算沒有外力﹐整個系統也膨脹得難以自我支撐﹐再加上創業者的後代多數欠缺前人的勇闖精神﹐如果不定時革新整頓﹐他日總會倒塌。
所以家族成員可以持有股份﹐但管理恐怕還是應該選賢讓能。

富察﹕許倬雲的一本書,曾用企業創業、併購、倒閉的角度分析中國古代王朝,非常有趣新鮮。或許你讀過?

沒讀過啊﹐那聽來很有趣﹗我是因以前看到有人比較康熙帝和光緒帝﹐覺得並不公平﹐於是就嘗試比對兩人所面對的內部和外部因素﹐發現兩人所處的世界完全不同
我又傻傻的問﹕那麼大蒙古帝國又為何如此短命?

富察兄乘機打廣告呢﹗答案見:杉山正明寫的《忽必烈的挑戰》第三部第五節——為何未盡全攻?(八旗文化出版)哈哈,廣告一下。其實日本學者的看法是:蒙古所建立的龐大軍事和通商帝國,大到需要更高的技術手段來維繫(比如互聯網、高鐵、飛機),如果從商業公司的角度看,擴張太大,財務和管理就需要更多技術手段。這是最根本的原因。

*****
無論如何﹐我還是傾向先撇開種族因素﹐檢視一下滿清。
滿清三百多年﹐有時候需要以尚武精神鞏固自己﹐有時就要以漢文化的元素來解決問題﹐到了清末﹐恐怕就要西化才能生存了。
一個國家/體系要變革向前進﹐在某些關鍵時刻﹐可能需要放棄一些利益﹐作出一些讓步﹐但清末的統治集團﹐本來是有不只一次轉彎的機會﹐但最終還是不願妥協。
(想起來現在的香港也出現類似情況?)

這次對話中途﹐因想翻查一些細節﹐所以打開以前寫的東西重溫﹐原來自己曾經寫過﹐慈禧太后從不放心思培養接班人﹐今天想想﹐她可能在身體變差的時候有思量過﹐但出於政局﹐不得透露半點風聲﹐也不得露出馬腳給人猜測﹐否則只有亂上加亂。
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by wwjune | 2015-03-08 16:42 | 歷史之輪

再多一次就夠了

我不贊成妖魔化慈禧﹐但透過矮化﹑埋沒他人(恭親王﹑光緒等等)的方式來突出她﹐或為她平反﹐並不可取﹐也不是治史的應有態度。
她的很多改革舉措﹐是出於辛丑條約後的逼不得已﹐當時滿清已是苟延殘喘﹐
我同意溥儀所說的﹐她為保住愛新覺羅寶座盡了最後一分力。

不只一次和自己說﹐想在有生之年﹐再去多一次崇陵﹐一次就夠了﹐雖自己並不老﹐但即使中國再不斷迅速發展﹐再不斷改善交通網絡﹐旅遊配套﹐去崇陵的路﹐還是舟車勞頓。

今天先來這裡憑吊一下。
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by wwjune | 2015-01-15 16:22 | 歷史之輪

生忌

143年就如此過去了
感謝你的啟發
願你一直伴我同行
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by wwjune | 2014-08-13 16:40 | 歷史之輪

國立臺灣博物館

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=10151914288586193&set=a.440804236192.209217.230461351192&type=1&theater
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by wwjune | 2014-03-19 16:40 | 歷史之輪

香港嶺南大學創校緣起

清光緒十四年,亦即西元1888年,美國長老會(American Presbyterian Church)在廣州沙基金利埠創辦了一所名為格致書院(Christian College in China)的高等學府。這所學府就是今天在香港復校四十多年的嶺南大學的前身。是年3月28日,格致書院正式授課,第一批學生只有三十人。
1893年,格致書院脫離美國長老會,在紐約另組董事局(Trustees of the Christian College in China),成為一所不屬於任何教會的基督教大學。其時中國政局正值多事之秋,格致書院既屬外國教會所有,難免成為仇外份子滋擾的對象。1900年,曾經在格致書院就學的史堅如謀刺兩廣總督德壽事敗,格致書院引起了滿清政府的注意。為免捲入政治旋渦,格致書院遷往澳門暫避。1903年,格致書院改名Canton Christian College,中文校名亦改為嶺南學堂,是為「嶺南」用作校名之始。在澳門流寓期間,嶺南學堂更一度考慮遷往九龍。1904年,嶺南學堂決定遷回廣州,並在廣州河南康樂村購下三十多英畝土地,成為日後嶺南大學的永久校園.......

http://www.ln.edu.hk/cht/info-about/history
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by wwjune | 2014-01-27 14:28 | 歷史之輪

十年光緒迷

我記得差不多是這個時候了﹐
當然﹐痴迷不會長久﹐沉澱的情感﹑內心深處的無限思念﹐才能歷久常新﹐並更有力量。

光緒同好Furui 賦七律一首﹐概括自己近年的經歷﹑觀察和心情:
留洋五載鄉情切,赴職京師十三行;
霧都租借猶談笑,抬首卻望趙家樓。
舊時天子祭日壇,今朝宦商觥籌錯;
遙想羊城有志士,打倒列強除內寇。
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by wwjune | 2013-10-18 15:28 | 歷史之輪

書終於上架了﹗

c0090351_17152293.jpg


想告訴大家----還有永遠不老的光緒爺﹕
“光緒瀛台遺夢”上架了﹐是一本電子書﹐真很高興
今年剛好我“認識”了光緒十年了﹐歷史既深且廣﹐是個掘之不盡的寶藏﹐
寫這本書﹐全憑熱情﹐還請大家多多指教﹗

當中一大遺憾是錯過了台灣畫家德珍老師﹐後悔以前沒有嘗試聯絡德珍老師﹐就是因為稿件一直沒做好﹐回想起來﹐就算給草稿她看有什麼所謂呢﹐她是個不折不扣的光緒迷﹐只怕能找到一個知音﹐分享自己對光緒的喜愛﹐就足夠了﹐可惜﹐她人已不在了。

德珍三十七歲離世﹐光緒三十七歲駕崩﹐這年紀死亡﹐誰都說是英年早逝。
現在自己活到這歲數了﹐有時在人前認老﹐有時卻是後生。
這所謂“英年”﹐是人生最好的年齡段嗎﹖
感謝一直在路上陪伴的讀者和文友們﹗願共勉之﹗


各平台網址﹕


PUBU電子書
遠傳e書城
READMOO
MuchMarts (Mobile Only)
台哥大樂讀
Mr. Book
UDN



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by wwjune | 2013-03-16 15:05 | 歷史之輪

光緒瀛台遺夢 目錄

1.病急投醫--從甲午到戊戌
風湧雲起時---<日清韓貴顯御肖像>
丁汝昌的待遇
文明進化與剪辮
光緒皇帝定製世界地圖
叔嫂共和
難捨翁師傅
戊戌火不熄
貓捕雀

2.庚子篇
慈禧給列強還以顏色
力挽狂瀾--光緒親電外國元首求斡旋
太后也當難民---西逃路上
命硬的趙舒翹
小說教育與流氓世界
中國第一架飛機
夜雨聞鈴腸斷聲
慈禧太后與昭和天皇

3.後宮佳麗三人
可憐的隆裕
珍妃與文廷式上位
得寵的代價---廷仗﹑降級﹑關押﹑落井
德齡的情意結

4.光緒之死
誰是兇手

5.紫禁城落日
溥儀登基
光緒遺詔---托孫中山除袁世凱
辛亥革命百年與海外華人
固執的孫中山
梁啟超內心交戰

6.管家婆治國
「親爸爸」的來由
太后性忍﹐實則難測
皇上性暴﹐內實忠厚
正副手如火星撞地球?

7.硬要假設歷史
如果大正天皇不死
廉親王胤禩與太后對壘

8.軼聞
京師大學堂雕像
慈禧以珍寶抵債
國寶物歸「原主」
同治帝戴耳環﹖
光緒帝二三事

9.結語
劃破時空的緣份
歷史感
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by wwjune | 2012-10-17 15:35 | 歷史之輪

原來如此

《對日和平條約》(通稱舊金山和約或舊金山和平條約),是大部分同盟國与軸心國成員之一的日本所簽訂的和平條約。1951年9月8日,包括日本在內的48個國家的代表在美國舊金山的舊金山戰爭紀念歌劇院簽訂了這份和約,並於1952年4月28日(日本時間晚上十點三十分)正式生效;這份和約的起草人為當時的美國國務卿顧問杜勒斯。
該和約主要是為了解決第二次世界大戰後戰敗國日本的戰後地位問題與釐清戰爭責任所衍生的國際法律問題,和約的第二條聲明日本承認朝鮮獨立、放棄台灣、澎湖、千島群島、庫頁島南部、南沙群島、西沙群島等島嶼的權利。
於第三條中,日本同意美國對於琉球群島等諸島實施聯合國信託管理。
此外﹐也放棄1901年辛丑條約裡列明日本在中國所能享有的權益。
(From Wikipedia)

中華民國當時退守台灣﹐可謂自身不保﹐而韓國正逢內戰﹐都沒有參加舊金山和會,中華民國自行與日本簽和約。

日本觀點認為釣魚台(尖閣)原本無主。中國的觀點是1895年馬關割台前﹐釣魚台隸屬台灣﹐割台後,日本政府有意將釣魚台納入沖繩,未完成合法手續﹐卻租了給一位商人﹐商人死後﹐日本國乾脆把島賣了給商人的兒子﹐兒子在島上經營魚類加工﹐後來結業﹐於是又再成為無人之島。
(註﹕雖釣魚島並沒有包括在馬關條約割讓的範圍內﹐但在甲午戰爭後期被日本佔領)

二戰後,美國託管琉球﹐把釣魚台併在琉球群島範圍,兩岸沒有提出異議。直到1971年美國結束託管,一併把釣魚台連同琉球交還日本;爭端方起。

當年沒有爭取連同台灣一起歸還﹐老是覺得老蔣有不可推卸的責任。
再翻看一些資料﹐日韓間竹島/獨島的紛爭原來也是因舊金山和約而起。
好一個燙手山芋﹐且看未來發展如何。
在可見的將來﹐民間每隔若干年象徵式出海保釣插旗宣示﹐然後日本拘捕驅趕的循環仍會繼續﹐就好像極地一樣﹐爭個沒完沒了。

謝謝洪宜勇老師講解
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by wwjune | 2012-08-18 16:00 | 歷史之輪

在人生的道路上﹐遇上戴著神秘面紗的你﹐三生有幸

在這特別日子﹐分享一段FB留言﹐談現今中國
By QM

Despite the fact I've never lived in China, and lack the vast exposure to it like Kitto, I agree with several points argued in this article. A xenophobic mist clouds every Chinese eye due to "foreign humiliation", forcing us to choose short-term relief than long-term cure in a lot of situations. To be dependent is to be weak, and anything short of perfection is short for failure. An environment of anger is what seems to be the driving force of the Chinese masses; this anger is not directed at the outside, however, but to ourselves. The frustration of always straying behind a rival has been enrooted deep in Chinese veins, a phenomenon that won't be vanquished easily since this dark period of history has been written in Chinese blood. In my opinion, it makes sense that we self-reflect on our actions. Perhaps not avenging past grievances, but to demand respect of others through Chinese self-merit. I believe that has been a goal that many Chinese strive for and that the government spearheads, but unfortunately for us the end does not justify the means. Human rights are constantly threatened, the privileged misuses their power, the poor have their backs to the walls, social and political wounds have been opened and smeared with salt, etc. All these abuses for the sake of material and economic wealth? Is it worth causing so much damage to develop our motherland? Many episodes in history suggest that progress naturally have its painful consequences, but is there a limit of pain before all attempts to progress crumble? Anyone would expect that the more challenging the effort the more benefits you reap, though China is keen to uproot a finely grown crop without allowing it to fully blossom for optimum profit, wasting much energy and decreasing quality and efficiency in the process. However, why doesn't this stop? The presence of market and political rivals around the world adds considerable pressure to China to keep up or exceed them. The U.S. is brewing anti-Chinese sentiments, the coasts of China's neighbors boil, and technology evolves society to the extent that single-party totalitarianism cannot keep a stable grasp of. These elements are constant menace to stability, demanding fast and often improvised changes in any culture around the world. On one hand, China is optimistic they will survive these turbulences, and hope that what doesn't destroy them makes them stronger. On the other hand, China lacks the infrastructure and the composure to emerge from troubles unscathed. Perhaps in times of peace will China truly have the platform to display its overwhelming potential, though currently we show off a clean room while the dust is swept and piled up under the rug, evident for others to see while we vehemently deny. China will never develop well if we don't acknowledge vices, though neither will anyone be if placed under intense pressure as China now goes through. It is not a question of survival but pride, a game of politicians aimed to arouse nationalism and power, a game China is eager to win but can't. I do disagree that for that matter, and for all the trouble, one leaves China. The past is the past, facts can't be changed and one must move on. Choosing to quit, however, is not an option. MK to leave China is to seek brief relief over pure cure, so in a sense he is more Chinese than he believes to be. What is my solution? To change the mindset of China, to stand strong in the face of adversary, to stay modest during times of great harvest. It is lack of transformation that stalls Chinese modernization, though the methods employed now are not helping our cause either. A wide-spread revolution is essential to snap conscience into the Chinese people, to accept defeat and use it as a threshold to success. As for now, everyone in China is at fault. The government is stubborn for change, but the citizens and netizens just spend their brittle power arguing and protesting. Everyone fears for their own skin instead of the community's integrity, and that will be the main reason for the collapse of a great nation. Collaboration must exists between the ruler and the ruled, outside pressure should be considered but not feared of, and invest time as well as sweat and toil. I go back to state that China should deal with their own issue, but always with efficiency and confidence and not chaos and panic. Maybe then, and ONLY then, we will have the chance to smile, the right to celebrate, the privileged to taste success, and the power to silence critics.
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by wwjune | 2012-08-15 15:12 | 歷史之輪