讀後感﹕
光緒帝聯合日本大舉新政外交政策的确立--從林權助致大隈重信机密報告談起
作者: 孔祥吉, 村田雄二郎

文章後段作者分析﹕光緒皇帝与日親交,完全從吸取日本經驗,迅致富強的目的出發; 而林權助則希望通過親交,增加日本在中國的影響,謀取更多的利益。可見,雖然都主張親交,而動機卻有區別。
我覺得對於日本來說﹐與中國親交簡直是一石多鳥﹐除了上面所說之外﹐中日無論用何種方式結盟﹐都有助抗衡西方﹐平衡勢力。

但光緒和維新派的字典裡偏偏忽略了balance of power﹐從他在戊戌變法期間把李鴻章攆出總理衙門的舉動可看出﹐在他和維新派的腦海中﹐親俄和親日兩者之間﹐只能擇其一﹐這有違外交現實﹐如果說俄國越來越進逼﹐光緒只要成功和日本建立緊密的外交關係﹐就足以平衡李鴻章的親俄勢力(就是李說的『以夷制夷』)﹐但連李鴻章的職務也免除﹐動作就未免太大了﹐而且日後容易讓日本坐大﹐讓歷史一路重複﹐這種單向思維無疑給艱難的維新製造更多波瀾。

記得看《明治天皇》﹐我的印象是明治本人多是不動聲色﹐身旁的文武重臣都在猜度他的心意;而在清國﹐文武百官却看慈禧太后的臉色做人﹐再加上早前提及的滿漢利益衝突﹐中國的維新路﹐早就註定比日本崎嶇難行了。
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by wwjune | 2009-02-27 17:15 | 歷史之輪

這本書的內容我以前經常看見被引用﹐這裡摘錄一些有關皇上的記載。
The Great Empress Dowager of China 1910
Philip W. Sergeant (390 pages)

...Kwanghsu was assuredly the most extraordinary character in the huge Manchu Imperial family, far from ordinary as were many of his kinsmen. If his uncle Kung 恭親王 has rightly been called by us somewhat of an enigma, Kwanghsu was more enigmatic still. Suffering from ill-health in early childhood, he always remained delicate and sickly. Foreigners who saw him at various periods in his life were always impressed by the pallor of his skin and his timid, shrinking air. His youthful appearance continued into middle life; for at thirty-eight he is said to have looked only sixteen. His figure was elegant and slight, his head large, with the frontal portion well developed (though retreating toward the crown); his face an elongated oval, with a very narrow and projecting lower jaw; his eyes, under high arched brows, large and mournful, while full of intelligence; his lips thin and sensitive, always parted and slightly twisted up to the left. His dress was extremely simple whenever State ceremonial did not cause it to be otherwise. The restraint and dignity of his bearing in public were always noticeable. Yet it was rumoured that he was capable of violent anger in private; that as a child he would throw himself upon the floor and scream if his desires were thwarted; and that in later life he occasionally broke everything within reach, and more than once was guilty of kicking off his slipper at his principal wife, with whom he got on but ill. With regard to women in general, it was said that their society had little attraction for him, however good-looking they might be. Some have gone so far as to call him a perfect type of a degenerate.

Whatever his personal share in drawing up that astonishing Reform Programme which must always make his reign memorable, Kwanghsu decidedly had a great aptitude for the assimilation of new ideas. ……..Of all his nation, Chinese and Manchu, he seems to have been the nearest approach to a proforeigner. Indeed, could we feel quite certain about Kwanghsu, we might call him the only pro-foreigner whom China has produced. We may be confident, at any rate, in calling him an enthusiast and a visionary......


In addition, the account of the Imperial audience on November 12th, 1894, in which the foreign representatives were received by the emperor, is an interesting read:
.....The foreign ministers being introduced in the manner hitherto prescribed, their doyen, the representative of the United States, spoke a few words of congratulation on the occasion and presented his letter. Interpretation, first into Chinese, then into Manchu, followed. Each minister in turn followed the doyen's example, on each occasion one of the two senior Princes (one of them was 慶親王) giving a Manchu translation of the letter and laying it on the yellow-covered table, whereon the Emperor bowed and spoke a few words of Manchu, which were translated first into Chinese and then into the language of the particular country's representative. The audience concluded with the ministers bowing themselves out of the hall.
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by wwjune | 2009-02-27 16:20 | 歷史之輪

c0090351_17171719.gif除了《罕為人知的中日結盟及其他——晚清中日關系史新探》這本書外﹐另外有件東西我也很想擁有------就是升(陞)官圖一張﹐升官圖是一個中國古代的圖板遊戲。當然我買來是想看看官位排列﹐不是用來賭博的啦。

陞官圖網頁 裡面附有一清末版本
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by wwjune | 2009-02-24 17:17 | 歷史之輪

c0090351_1546522.jpg
知道了﹕硃批奏折展
台灣故宮博物院 2004-2005年

光緒的脾氣陰晴不定﹐幸好他沒有把火氣發泄在奏折上的跡象﹐否則﹐奏折是永久性的記錄﹐萬一哪位大臣中了招就慘了。

另﹐受Sharon的啟發﹐再補充一些有關寇連材的事跡。
1) 寇連材上書與維新思想
。。。“百日維新”前洋務派與維新派在民權問題上的重大分歧,將時人面對現實所產生的政治變法與經濟變法何者為先的思想認識差距,暴露的是最清楚的。
2) 宦官的歷史
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by wwjune | 2009-02-19 16:19 | 歷史之輪

早前聽說將會有一套以光緒皇帝為主題的電視劇在大陸面世﹐以同名小說為藍本﹐但一直只聞風聲﹐我懷疑電視劇即便拍攝成功﹐恐怕也要通過嚴格審批﹐說不定光緒或者康有為那句話會觸痛現今權力的神經哦。

有時總覺得光緒在他的皇帝生涯中好幾次把事情搞糊了﹐但有時聽聽亂七八糟的新聞時事﹐卻忽然覺得百多年前的皇上在思想上很英明﹐觀念上很先進﹐莫非我們現在都越活越糊塗了﹖
_____________________________________

以前上中學一年級﹐中文第一篇讀的就是文言文﹐後來我才知道﹐以兩岸三地來說﹐香港人讀的文言數量是出了名的多﹐但不見得我們的中文好得哪裡去﹐皆因大部份人都是囫圇吞棗務求過關就算。

我倒是記得我讀的第一篇短文是“貓捕雀”﹐比喻貪官污吏殘害百姓。當年那位綽號為“女殺手”的中文老師﹐不幸在年近四十因心臟病去世﹐當年她告訴我們“貓”應讀作miu﹐到今天我還沒弄清原因。作者薛福成是清末人﹐迷上了光緒爺的我﹐今天就有動力去翻查一下他的來頭﹐他原來是咸﹑同﹑光三朝的傑出官員﹐擅長改革和外交。很遺憾他1894年去世﹐否則我希望他能在戊戌變法時期派上用場。

原文:
窗外有棗林,雛雀習飛其下。一日,貓蔽身林間,突出噬雀母。其雛四五,噪而逐貓,每進益怒。貓奮攫之,不勝,反奔入室。雀母死,其雛繞室啁啾,飛入室者三。越數日,猶望室而嗓也。
哀哉!貓一搏而奪四五雛之母,人雖不及救之,未有不惻焉動於中者。而貓且眈眈然,惟恐不盡其類焉。烏虖,何其性之忍耶!
物與物相殘,人且惡之;乃有憑權位,張爪牙,殘民以自肥者,何也?

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by wwjune | 2009-02-18 16:59 | 歷史之輪

我前天跟自己說﹐這光緒爺的事看樣子快要收筆了﹐怎知道﹐第二天靈感突如泉涌!

昨天看了兩篇文章
1) 光緒本紀
張宏杰 當代雜誌

2)(中國大恥記)光緒之死 兼向所有為改革獻身的歷史人物致敬
昝愛宗 《議報》第183期

兩篇不妨一看但都有偏頗﹐比如昝愛宗君引用寇連材筆記﹐今人對於寇連材筆記的真實性存有疑問﹐不排除被維新派收買。至於第一篇﹐史料和論點有些東拉西揍﹐感覺作者在以一篇文章的篇幅寫一本書才能涵蓋的事情﹐而且張先生把光緒皇帝在朝廷的角色寫得太重﹐滿清實際上是以族群集團形式統治。

文中舉出一事例倒是最令我注意﹕曾經服務於宮中的陶湘在寫給大臣盛宣懷的信中提到這樣一件事:1904年,光緒要太監給自己的臥室安上電話。太監說這种新鮮事物剛剛傳到中國,北京城內尚沒有貨物供應,得聯繫進口才行。皇帝登時大怒,限太監一日內找到,否則掌嘴。後來因為怕太后知道,才作罷。陶湘在信中說:“借此可知老太太之嚴待非無因也,借此可知當今之難以有為。實可憂也。且聞當今性情急躁,雷霆雨露均無一定,總之,太君無論如何高壽,亦有年所,一旦不測,後事不堪設想。”

記憶所及﹐光緒無理催促下人買東西不是第一次﹐而這恰恰是太后和家規太嚴(吸取同治生前的教訓)所造成﹐他自小入宮以來﹐除了按例出宮祭典和庚子狼狽西逃之外﹐說不上有呼吸外面空氣的機會﹐別說去遊歷﹐他從來沒有上過餐館﹐沒有光顧過商店﹐對商業運作概念本已很薄弱﹐再而是他可能憂鬱症發作﹐這可憐的太監碰巧就要挨這脾氣﹐但我覺得只要讓光緒出外逛一逛街﹐這憂鬱症就會減輕不少。不過這缺乏見識的老太婆是有理由害怕的﹐讓他自己出去又怕他逃往領事館﹐讓人跟蹤他又怕生別的事端。

安裝電話的事最後作罷﹐我想是因為皇上怕太后知道他自己拿主意安裝電話(感覺他好像忘了要鋪設電話線)﹐二來他後悔自己無理發火。

另外﹐陶湘的書信再帶出來的重點是----在當時的亂世﹐朝廷上下唯有指望太后讓清王朝苟延殘喘﹐能過一天算一天。
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by wwjune | 2009-02-17 16:43 | 歷史之輪

一起來輕鬆一下﹗

台灣東森台﹕關鍵時刻
(1/6):清朝皇室怎麼過新年?
(2/6):老佛爺的年夜飯
(3/6):慈禧的過年收禮與壓歲錢
(4/6):慈禧太后過年也打撲克牌
(5/6):慈禧喜歡收禮看淫戲!?
(6/6):枯楊生華 慈禧偷腥養生!?


[PR]
by wwjune | 2009-02-16 17:56 | 歷史之輪

清光緒帝砒霜中毒類型及日期考 鐘里滿 (節錄)

。。。十月十日:光緒帝帶領王大臣等祝壽,但率百官祝壽被慈禧太后阻止。
起居注官惲毓鼎的兩段親歷的文字,記錄了慈禧太后在十日突然在內部強行宣布光緒帝這一天(即死前十日)“臥病在床,免率百官行禮”。

《惲毓鼎澄齋日記》:
初十日,陰。皇太后万壽,升儀鸞殿。辰正,皇上率王公百官在來熏風門外行禮,臣毓鼎侍班,入寶光門后始知圣躬不豫,唯在內廷行禮,毓鼎乃隨諸臣入班叩賀。

惲毓鼎《崇陵傳信錄》:
十月初十日,上率百僚晨賀太后万壽,起居注官應侍班,先集于來熏風門外。上步行自南海來,入德昌門,門罅為闔,侍班官窺見上正扶閹肩,以兩足起落作勢,舒筋骨為拜跪計。須臾,忽奉懿旨:皇帝臥病在床,免率百官行禮,輟侍班。上聞之大慟。

。。。十二日前數日光緒帝都沒有服藥


這不正是己亥建儲的重演?當然﹐健康日走下坡的慈禧強行宣布光緒帝臥病在床,免率百官行禮﹐也能避免皇帝和文武百官窺見自己的狀態。
光緒可能也意識到這危險訊號(上聞之大慟)。所以之後的幾天不願服藥,任何病痛都寧願忍著﹐也就不出奇。這段日子光緒其實也是憂心忡忡﹐四面受敵不在話下﹐並非野史所說聽到老太婆病重心情舒暢很多。。。

無論如何﹐他最後還是敵不過鬼門關。。。。唉------

啊怎麼我今天會這樣過情人節﹖
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by wwjune | 2009-02-15 17:12 | 歷史之輪

談粵曲之前先來個好消息﹐Furui正在努力建設她的英文blog-- Memories of Palace. 我剛剛把它加上去並順便把旁邊的menu略為裝修一下。雖然我們都花不少篇幅寫光緒爺﹐但都不想限制自己﹐沒敢自稱為光緒專題網站。

我不懂粵劇﹐不過看完新馬師曾的演出覺得很欣喜﹐他把光緒的悲憤表現得恰到好處﹐不煽情也不跨張﹐這些特徵也一樣反映在曲詞上﹐新馬雖然比光緒老很多﹐但當天塑造出來的光緒形像還算合適﹐最厲害的是他單人匹馬唱足20分鐘﹐真不愧為一代名伶。
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by wwjune | 2009-02-14 17:32 | 歷史之輪

情人節快到了,請皇上和大家一起聽一首粵曲!
新馬師曾 於一籌款活動獻藝
這是我第一次完整的聽完一首粵曲。(笑)

(光緒乙反戀壇)怨恨母后,幾番保奏不能為我分憂,心抱恨,累妹你終不許訂白頭。怨恨母后,忍心將你推殘命已歸幽。真抱憾,令妹你飲恨悠悠。此生恨倍憂,此生恨倍愁。 (拉腔) (白)一念當年恨未休,十載相思債未酬,百計千方中何用,万般心事一般愁。 (秋水伊人)愁低首,此生到此复何求。求….嬌与孤雙配偶,今生今世共白頭,与嬌不分手。又奈何嘆妹身,天公不許永長留。好比鋼刀万把刺孤心頭。 (南音)記得那晚与妹你重見后,轉眼又一秋。傷心如我,身已作楚囚。憶自那晚改裝。与你重見後,兵來犯,奪我大好神州,那時兵困京師,母后同我出走。那時幾番求懇,誓要帶妹奔投。點想到恒佛口蛇心,說你曾去後,那時遍尋不獲,你話我幾心憂。 (乙反) 尾後返到宮中,又逢母后母大抵天不佑,怨我護花無力,枉為花愁 (乙反二王)憐卿你薄命如桃,恰似一棵風前的衰柳。恨飛不到奈何橋,飛不到枉死城邊,飛不到鬼門關後,那時共妹雙雙對對大家同魂游。雖則生既未許與妹你諧永久,只愿死成連理,做一對花也并頭。(乙反中板)今晚夜怨為皇,好像一個末路皇孫,恰似一位神壇木偶。更恨枉稱孤,更說什麼和道寡,尤似一只受制猿猴;屢欲反江山,即估計自立為旺,更不料難瞞聰明的母后,今日事難成而妹你身先喪。(花) 最有一事難忘,都只為你與孤代承罪咎。(哭相思,嘆板下句)今日痛嬌軀,何委屈,估不到你在這個古井埋愁,我惟望你早到離恨天宮,妹呀你將孤皇等候。
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by wwjune | 2009-02-13 15:34 | 歷史之輪