原來如此

《對日和平條約》(通稱舊金山和約或舊金山和平條約),是大部分同盟國与軸心國成員之一的日本所簽訂的和平條約。1951年9月8日,包括日本在內的48個國家的代表在美國舊金山的舊金山戰爭紀念歌劇院簽訂了這份和約,並於1952年4月28日(日本時間晚上十點三十分)正式生效;這份和約的起草人為當時的美國國務卿顧問杜勒斯。
該和約主要是為了解決第二次世界大戰後戰敗國日本的戰後地位問題與釐清戰爭責任所衍生的國際法律問題,和約的第二條聲明日本承認朝鮮獨立、放棄台灣、澎湖、千島群島、庫頁島南部、南沙群島、西沙群島等島嶼的權利。
於第三條中,日本同意美國對於琉球群島等諸島實施聯合國信託管理。
此外﹐也放棄1901年辛丑條約裡列明日本在中國所能享有的權益。
(From Wikipedia)

中華民國當時退守台灣﹐可謂自身不保﹐而韓國正逢內戰﹐都沒有參加舊金山和會,中華民國自行與日本簽和約。

日本觀點認為釣魚台(尖閣)原本無主。中國的觀點是1895年馬關割台前﹐釣魚台隸屬台灣﹐割台後,日本政府有意將釣魚台納入沖繩,未完成合法手續﹐卻租了給一位商人﹐商人死後﹐日本國乾脆把島賣了給商人的兒子﹐兒子在島上經營魚類加工﹐後來結業﹐於是又再成為無人之島。
(註﹕雖釣魚島並沒有包括在馬關條約割讓的範圍內﹐但在甲午戰爭後期被日本佔領)

二戰後,美國託管琉球﹐把釣魚台併在琉球群島範圍,兩岸沒有提出異議。直到1971年美國結束託管,一併把釣魚台連同琉球交還日本;爭端方起。

當年沒有爭取連同台灣一起歸還﹐老是覺得老蔣有不可推卸的責任。
再翻看一些資料﹐日韓間竹島/獨島的紛爭原來也是因舊金山和約而起。
好一個燙手山芋﹐且看未來發展如何。
在可見的將來﹐民間每隔若干年象徵式出海保釣插旗宣示﹐然後日本拘捕驅趕的循環仍會繼續﹐就好像極地一樣﹐爭個沒完沒了。

謝謝洪宜勇老師講解
[PR]
by wwjune | 2012-08-18 16:00 | 歷史之輪

在人生的道路上﹐遇上戴著神秘面紗的你﹐三生有幸

在這特別日子﹐分享一段FB留言﹐談現今中國
By QM

Despite the fact I've never lived in China, and lack the vast exposure to it like Kitto, I agree with several points argued in this article. A xenophobic mist clouds every Chinese eye due to "foreign humiliation", forcing us to choose short-term relief than long-term cure in a lot of situations. To be dependent is to be weak, and anything short of perfection is short for failure. An environment of anger is what seems to be the driving force of the Chinese masses; this anger is not directed at the outside, however, but to ourselves. The frustration of always straying behind a rival has been enrooted deep in Chinese veins, a phenomenon that won't be vanquished easily since this dark period of history has been written in Chinese blood. In my opinion, it makes sense that we self-reflect on our actions. Perhaps not avenging past grievances, but to demand respect of others through Chinese self-merit. I believe that has been a goal that many Chinese strive for and that the government spearheads, but unfortunately for us the end does not justify the means. Human rights are constantly threatened, the privileged misuses their power, the poor have their backs to the walls, social and political wounds have been opened and smeared with salt, etc. All these abuses for the sake of material and economic wealth? Is it worth causing so much damage to develop our motherland? Many episodes in history suggest that progress naturally have its painful consequences, but is there a limit of pain before all attempts to progress crumble? Anyone would expect that the more challenging the effort the more benefits you reap, though China is keen to uproot a finely grown crop without allowing it to fully blossom for optimum profit, wasting much energy and decreasing quality and efficiency in the process. However, why doesn't this stop? The presence of market and political rivals around the world adds considerable pressure to China to keep up or exceed them. The U.S. is brewing anti-Chinese sentiments, the coasts of China's neighbors boil, and technology evolves society to the extent that single-party totalitarianism cannot keep a stable grasp of. These elements are constant menace to stability, demanding fast and often improvised changes in any culture around the world. On one hand, China is optimistic they will survive these turbulences, and hope that what doesn't destroy them makes them stronger. On the other hand, China lacks the infrastructure and the composure to emerge from troubles unscathed. Perhaps in times of peace will China truly have the platform to display its overwhelming potential, though currently we show off a clean room while the dust is swept and piled up under the rug, evident for others to see while we vehemently deny. China will never develop well if we don't acknowledge vices, though neither will anyone be if placed under intense pressure as China now goes through. It is not a question of survival but pride, a game of politicians aimed to arouse nationalism and power, a game China is eager to win but can't. I do disagree that for that matter, and for all the trouble, one leaves China. The past is the past, facts can't be changed and one must move on. Choosing to quit, however, is not an option. MK to leave China is to seek brief relief over pure cure, so in a sense he is more Chinese than he believes to be. What is my solution? To change the mindset of China, to stand strong in the face of adversary, to stay modest during times of great harvest. It is lack of transformation that stalls Chinese modernization, though the methods employed now are not helping our cause either. A wide-spread revolution is essential to snap conscience into the Chinese people, to accept defeat and use it as a threshold to success. As for now, everyone in China is at fault. The government is stubborn for change, but the citizens and netizens just spend their brittle power arguing and protesting. Everyone fears for their own skin instead of the community's integrity, and that will be the main reason for the collapse of a great nation. Collaboration must exists between the ruler and the ruled, outside pressure should be considered but not feared of, and invest time as well as sweat and toil. I go back to state that China should deal with their own issue, but always with efficiency and confidence and not chaos and panic. Maybe then, and ONLY then, we will have the chance to smile, the right to celebrate, the privileged to taste success, and the power to silence critics.
[PR]
by wwjune | 2012-08-15 15:12 | 歷史之輪